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Parasite and Health Control for Llamas, Alpacas and Other Camelids

 Parasites
1) External – lice, mites, ticks. Treatment can be topical (methoxychlor) or injectable(ivermectin)

llama

2) Internal – Several kinds are common

a) Coccidia (Eimeria)

Signs include diarrhea, unthrifty, deadly in young.
Some difficult to diagnose antemortem (test is available)   
Treat with coccidiastats or Diclazuril

 b) Cryptosporidium
Signs of diarrhea and dehydration
Treatment is supportive care

 c) Roundworms
Cause hypoalbuminemia, diarrhea, poor coat, decreases 
strength of immune system.
Treat with Ivermectin or fenbendazole

d) Meningeal Worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis)
Causes neurologic signs – down, stumbling, circling, abnormal gait
Prevent with monthly Ivermectin injections
Disadvantage of prevention = resistance develops in GI worms.

Treat with anti-inflammatories, ivermectin, fenbendazole

e) Liver flukes
Live in bile ducts of liver
Need warm temps and use snails as their intermediate hosts.
Chronic disease more common with anorexia and anemia
Treat with Albendazole

Preventative Care

Vaccinations (annually)

  • Clostridium CD and Tetanus
  • Rabies

Deworming

  • Fecal egg counts twice yearly
  • Monthly Ivermectin injections SQ
  • Treatment of individuals with clinical signs
  • Common Diseases

    Skin disease –hairloss, crusts, itching on face, axilla, groin, lower legs.

    • Ectoparasites (lice, mites, ringworm)
    • Zinc-responsive Dermatitis – need biopsy or blood zinc levels - supplement with zinc sulfate at 2g/day or Zinpro 4g/day
    • Orf (virus causing sores around the mouth)
    • Idiopathic Dermatosis-when tests for above are negative
    • Vesicular Stomatitis – reportable, feet and mouth

    Digestive System

    Dental disease – molar abscess, incisor reduction, fighting teeth

    Esophageal choke

    Colic

    Ulcers

    Hyperthermia (heat stress)

      Very common and can be deadly
      •  Normal temperature 99-101.5 F
      • Shearing, shade, sprinkler, pool all preventative
      • Treatment includes IV fluids and supportive care
      • Secondary dehydration, renal disease and infections common

      Neonates

      • Failure of Passive Transfer
      • Failure to thrive
      • Diarrhea – E.coli, rotavirus, coronavirus, salmonella
      • Hypothermia
        Equine Eastern Encephalitis
      • Rare in Camelids -2 cases in WI this summer
      • Vaccine only for equine
    • Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVDV)
      • Abortions or persistently infected and viremic
      • Blood tests to diagnose
      • Strict biosecurity needed
      • Live vaccines not recommended, killed can be used
      • Affects sheep and goats also

     

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    09/19/2011